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  • Measure Summary
  • NQMC:000350
  • Oct 2002

Advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD): percent of patients with blood pressure checked at least once within the last 3 months.

Renal Physicians Association. Appropriate patient preparation for renal replacement therapy. Rockville (MD): Renal Physicians Association; 2002 Oct 1. 78 p. (Clinical Practice Guideline; no. 3).

This is the current release of the measure.

The measure developer reaffirmed the currency of this measure in March 2016.

Primary Measure Domain

Clinical Quality Measures: Process

Secondary Measure Domain

Does not apply to this measure

Description

This measure assesses the percent of patients with blood pressure checked at least once within the last three months among patients with advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD).

Rationale

Patients with advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) are situated at a crossroads between patients with less severe chronic kidney disease, where strict blood pressure control is a well established mainstay of therapy, and patients on dialysis, where blood pressure goals are not well understood. In the absence of strong scientific data to define therapeutic targets, blood pressure goals in dialysis patients remain extrapolated from the general population. Because of significantly increased cardiovascular risk in patients with both advanced CKD and diabetes, management of patients with both conditions deserves special attention.

Several observational studies have demonstrated that patients with advanced CKD are at high risk for hypertension. Patients with advanced CKD who are also hypertensive usually have blood pressures elevated above recommended guidelines, even if treated with antihypertensives. In order to be treated appropriately, blood pressure must first be assessed and hypertension recognized.

Evidence for Rationale

Brazy PC, Fitzwilliam JF. Progressive renal disease: role of race and antihypertensive medications. Kidney Int. 1990 Apr;37(4):1113-9. PubMed External Web Site Policy

Greene T, Bourgoignie JJ, Habwe V, Kusek JW, Snetselaar LG, Soucie JM, Yamamoto ME. Baseline characteristics in the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease Study [corrected and republished article originally printed in J Am Soc Nephrol 1993 May;3(11):1819-34]. J Am Soc Nephrol. 1993 Nov;4(5):1221-36. [28 references] PubMed External Web Site Policy

Kamper AL, Strandgaard S, Leyssac PP. Effect of enalapril on the progression of chronic renal failure. A randomized controlled trial. Am J Hypertens. 1992 Jul;5(7):423-30. [78 references] PubMed External Web Site Policy

Levin A, Singer J, Thompson CR, Ross H, Lewis M. Prevalent left ventricular hypertrophy in the predialysis population: identifying opportunities for intervention. Am J Kidney Dis. 1996 Mar;27(3):347-54. PubMed External Web Site Policy

Renal Physicians Association. Appropriate patient preparation for renal replacement therapy. Rockville (MD): Renal Physicians Association; 2002 Oct 1. 78 p. (Clinical Practice Guideline; no. 3).

Primary Health Components

Advanced chronic kidney disease; hypertension

Denominator Description

The number of adult patients with advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD), not currently receiving renal replacement therapy

Numerator Description

The number of patients from the denominator with blood pressure checked at least once within the last three months (90 days)

Type of Evidence Supporting the Criterion of Quality for the Measure

  • A clinical practice guideline or other peer-reviewed synthesis of the clinical research evidence
  • A formal consensus procedure, involving experts in relevant clinical, methodological, public health and organizational sciences
  • A systematic review of the clinical research literature (e.g., Cochrane Review)

Additional Information Supporting Need for the Measure

Elevated blood pressure is clearly an important risk factor for rapid progression of kidney disease and for cardiac hypertrophy.

Evidence for Additional Information Supporting Need for the Measure

Foley RN, Parfrey PS, Harnett JD, Kent GM, Murray DC, Barre PE. Impact of hypertension on cardiomyopathy, morbidity and mortality in end-stage renal disease. Kidney Int. 1996 May;49(5):1379-85. PubMed External Web Site Policy

Foley RN, Parfrey PS. Cardiac disease in chronic uremia: clinical outcome and risk factors. Adv Ren Replace Ther. 1997 Jul;4(3):234-48. [160 references] PubMed External Web Site Policy

Mall G, Huther W, Schneider J, Lundin P, Ritz E. Diffuse intermyocardiocytic fibrosis in uremic patients. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 1990;5(1):39-44. PubMed External Web Site Policy

Shiigai T, Hattori K, Iwamoto H, Owada A. Long-term enalapril therapy in patients with chronic renal failure on a low-protein diet. A prospective randomized comparison with metoprolol. Nephron. 1998;79(2):148-53. [45 references] PubMed External Web Site Policy

Extent of Measure Testing

Unspecified

State of Use

Current routine use

Current Use

Internal quality improvement

Measurement Setting

Ambulatory/Office-based Care

Hospital Outpatient

Professionals Involved in Delivery of Health Services

Physicians

Least Aggregated Level of Services Delivery Addressed

Individual Clinicians or Public Health Professionals

Statement of Acceptable Minimum Sample Size

Unspecified

Target Population Age

Age greater than or equal to 18 years

Target Population Gender

Either male or female

National Quality Strategy Aim

Better Care

National Quality Strategy Priority

Prevention and Treatment of Leading Causes of Mortality

IOM Care Need

Living with Illness

IOM Domain

Effectiveness

Case Finding Period

Unspecified

Denominator Sampling Frame

Patients associated with provider

Denominator (Index) Event or Characteristic

Clinical Condition

Patient/Individual (Consumer) Characteristic

Denominator Time Window

Does not apply to this measure

Denominator Inclusions/Exclusions

Inclusions
Adult patients age 18 years and older with chronic kidney disease stage 4 or 5 (glomerular filtration rate [GFR] less than or equal to 30 mL/min/1.73 m2), not currently receiving renal replacement therapy

Exclusions
Unspecified

Exclusions/Exceptions

Unspecified

Numerator Inclusions/Exclusions

Inclusions
The number of patients from the denominator with blood pressure checked at least once within the last three months (90 days)

Exclusions
Unspecified

Numerator Search Strategy

Fixed time period or point in time

Data Source

Administrative clinical data

Laboratory data

Paper medical record

Type of Health State

Does not apply to this measure

Instruments Used and/or Associated with the Measure

Unspecified

Measure Specifies Disaggregation

Does not apply to this measure

Scoring

Rate/Proportion

Interpretation of Score

Desired value is a higher score

Allowance for Patient or Population Factors

Unspecified

Standard of Comparison

Internal time comparison

Original Title

Number of patients with blood pressure checked at least once within the last 3 months / number of patients with advanced CKD.

Measure Collection Name

Clinical Performance Measures on Appropriate Patient Preparation for Renal Replacement Therapy

Measure Set Name

Hypertension Recommendations

Submitter

Renal Physicians Association - Medical Specialty Society

Developer

Renal Physicians Association - Medical Specialty Society

Funding Source(s)

Ortho Biotech Products, LP

Composition of the Group that Developed the Measure

W. Kline Bolton, MD, Working Group Chair, University of Virginia School of Medicine, Charlottesville, VA; William F. Owen, Jr., MD, President, RPA, Duke University School of Medicine Durham, NC; Baxter Healthcare Corp., McGaw Park, IL; Dale Singer, MHA, Executive Director, RPA.

Content Experts: Jack Coburn, MD, UCLA School of Medicine, West Los Angeles V.A. Healthcare Center, West Los Angeles, CA; William Haley, MD, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, FL; Annamaria Kausz, MD, New England Medical Center, Boston, MA; Adeera Levin, MD, St. Paul's Hospital, Vancouver, BC; William Mitch, MD, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX; Patricia Painter, PhD, University of California, San Francisco, CA; Michael Rocco, MD, MSCE, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC.

Association Representatives: Carolyn Atkins, RN, BS, CCTC, National Kidney Foundation, Medical City Dallas Hospital, Dallas, TX; Shelley Clark, RN, National Renal Administrators Association, FMC North Roanoke Dialysis, Roanoke, VA; Paul Eggers, PhD, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK), Bethesda, MD; Lori Fedje, RD, LD, NKF Council on Renal Nutrition, Pacific Northwest Renal Services, Portland, OR; Richard Goldman, MD, Renal Physicians Association, Renal Medicine Associates, Emeritus Albuquerque, NM; Joel Greer, PhD, Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, Baltimore, MD; Richard Lafayette, MD, American Society of Nephrology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA; Eugene Z. Oddone, MD, American College of Physicians - American Society of Internal Medicine, Durham VA Medical Center, Durham, NC; Victoria Norwood, MD, American Society of Pediatric Nephrology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA; Paul M. Palevsky, MD, Forum of ESRD Networks, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, VA Pittsburgh Health Care System, Pittsburgh, PA; Sandy Peckens, MSW, NKF Council of Nephrology Social Workers, Merrimack Valley Nephrology, Methuen, MA; Venkateswara Rao, MD, American Society of Transplantation, Hennepin County Medical Center, Minneapolis, MN; Charlotte Thomas Hawkins, PhD, RN, CNN, American Nephrology Nurses Association, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Burlington, NJ; Joseph White, American Association of Kidney Patients.

Methodologists: David B. Matchar, MD, FACP, Director, Duke Center for Clinical Health Policy Research and Co-Director, Duke Evidence-based Practice Center, Durham, NC; Douglas C. McCrory, MD, MHS, Co-Director Duke Evidence-based Practice Center, Durham, NC; Joseph A. Coladonato, MD, Duke Institute of Renal Outcomes Research & Health Policy, Durham, NC; Preston S. Klassen, MD, MHS, Duke Institute of Renal Outcomes Research & Health Policy, Durham, NC; Meenal B. Patwardhan, MD, MHSA, Duke Center for Clinical Health Policy Research and Duke Evidence-based Practice Center, Durham, NC; Donal N. Reddan, MD, MHS, Duke Institute of Renal Outcomes Research & Health Policy, Durham, NC; Olivier T. Rutschmann, MD, MPH, Duke Center for Clinical Health Policy Research, Durham, NC; William S. Yancy, Jr., MD, MHS, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC.

Medical Editor: Rebecca N. Gray, DPhil, Duke Evidence-based Practice Center, Durham, NC.

Project Manager and Editor: Emily G. Shurr, MA, Duke Evidence-based Practice Center, Durham, NC.

Financial Disclosures/Other Potential Conflicts of Interest

There were none disclosed.

Adaptation

This measure was not adapted from another source.

Date of Most Current Version in NQMC

2002 Oct

Measure Maintenance

Unspecified

Date of Next Anticipated Revision

Unspecified

Measure Status

This is the current release of the measure.

The measure developer reaffirmed the currency of this measure in March 2016.

Source(s)

Renal Physicians Association. Appropriate patient preparation for renal replacement therapy. Rockville (MD): Renal Physicians Association; 2002 Oct 1. 78 p. (Clinical Practice Guideline; no. 3).

Measure Availability

Source not available electronically.

For more information, contact the Renal Physicians Association (RPA) at 1700 Rockville Pike, Suite 220, Rockville, MD 20852; Phone: 301-468-3515; Fax: 301-468-3511; Web site: www.renalmd.org External Web Site Policy; E-mail: rpa@renalmd.org.

NQMC Status

This NQMC summary was completed by ECRI on May 23, 2003. The information was verified by the Renal Physicians Association on June 17, 2003.

This NQMC summary was retrofitted into the new template on May 6, 2011.

The information was reaffirmed by the measure developer on March 11, 2016.

Copyright Statement

This NQMC summary is based on the original measure, which is subject to the measure developer's copyright restrictions.

For more information, contact RPA at 1700 Rockville Pike, Suite 220, Rockville, MD 20852; phone: 301-468-3515; fax: 301-468-3511; Web site: www.renalmd.org External Web Site Policy; e-mail: rpa@renalmd.org.

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